From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. The CD-ROM itself may contain “weak” sectors to make copying the disc more difficult, and additional data that may be difficult or impossible to copy to a CD-R or disc image, but which the software checks for each time it is run to ensure an original disc and not an unauthorized copy is present in the computer’s CD-ROM drive. Webarchive template wayback links Articles needing additional references from January All articles needing additional references All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from March Articles to be expanded from June All articles to be expanded Articles using small message boxes Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers. The laser beam is directed onto the disc via an opto-electronic tracking module, which then detects whether the beam has been reflected or scattered.
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Several formats are used for data stored on compact discs, known as the Rainbow Books. This page was last edited on 18 Decemberat To achieve improved error correction and detection, Mode 1, used mostly for digital data, adds a bit cyclic redundancy check CRC code for error detection, and a third layer of Reed—Solomon error correction [n 1] using a Reed-Solomon Product-like Code RSPC.
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Information on access time latency. Archived from the original PDF on XA Mode 2 Form 2 has 2, bytes of user data, and is similar to the standard Mode 2 but with error detection bytes added though no error correction. The CD-ROM itself may contain “weak” sectors to make copying the disc more difficult, and additional data that may be difficult or impossible to copy to a CD-R or disc image, but which the software checks for each time it is run to ensure an original disc and not an unauthorized copy is present in the computer’s CD-ROM drive.
Retrieved October 24, One of a set of color-bound books that contain the technical specifications for all CD formats, the Yellow Bookstandardized by Sony and Philips inspecifies a format for discs with a maximum capacity of MiB. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Data is stored on the disc as a series of microscopic indentations. Note that both modes, like audio CDs, still benefit from the lower layers of error correction at the frame level.
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They can also coexist with audio CD tracks as well, which is the case of mixed mode CDs. This article needs additional citations for verification. Webarchive template wayback links Articles needing additional references from January All articles needing additional references All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from March Articles to be expanded from June All articles to be expanded Articles using small message boxes Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers.
Archived at the Wayback Machine.
A laser is shone onto the reflective surface of the disc to read the pattern of pits and lands “pits”, with the gaps between them xd to as “lands”. See also History of optical storage media High-definition optical disc format war.
During the s, CD-ROMs were popularly used to distribute software and data for computers and fourth generation video game consoles. Optical disc Optical disc drive Optical disc authoring Authoring software Recording technologies Recording modes Packet writing.
CD-ROM – Wikipedia
Mode 2, which is more appropriate for image or video data where perfect reliability may be a little bit less importantcontains no additional error detection or correction bytes, having therefore 2, available data bytes per sector.
Discs are made from a 1. Retrieved from ” https: Most 21st-century drives allow forced low speed modes by use wr small utility programs for the sake of safety, accurate reading or silence, and will automatically fall back if numerous sequential read errors and retries are encountered.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. You can help by adding to it. The size of a disc image created from the data in the sectors will depend on the type of sectors it is using.
CD-ROM capacities are normally expressed with binary prefixessubtracting the space used for error correction data.
This differs somewhat from audio CD protection in that it is usually implemented in both the media and the software itself. This section needs expansion with: Unlike an audio CD, a CD-ROM cannot rely on error concealment by interpolation ; a higher 321×0 of the retrieved data is required. Software distributors, and in particular distributors of computer games, often make use of various copy protection schemes to prevent software running from any media besides the original CD-ROMs.
CD-Recordable drives are often sold with three different speed ratings, one speed for write-once operations, one for re-write operations, and one for read-only operations.