June 15, 2020

A middle ‘C’ tone on an instrument is not a solid constant level of energy is it sounds to our ears, it is a wave which peaks every times per second. Magnetostrictive speaker drivers have some special advantages: Archived from the original on May 9, Retrieved 14 April Multi-cell Diaphragm Speakers 4. In , a research team introduced Transparent ionic conduction speaker which a 2 layers transparent conductive gel and a layer of transparent rubber in between to make high voltage and high actuation work to reproduce good sound quality.

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This speaker is related to the electrodynamic loudspeaker in that it uses magnetic fields to move an element, however its shape is different. A variety of different materials may be used, but the most common are paper, plastic, and metal. A few of the issues speaker and driver designers must confront are distortion, radiation lobing, phase effects, off-axis response, and crossover artifacts. When the rear radiation is absorbed or trapped in a box, the diaphragm becomes a monopole radiator. The region between the solid and dotted lines, therefore, represents a range of voice coil volumes which will give improved efficiencies with aluminum as the conducT5 tor ‘rather than copper.

In order to show the specific requirements that must be met for the realization of high efficiency in the low-frequency region, reference will be made to the simplified circuit shown in Fig.

By simply increasing the diameter of the cone, the efficiency of a particular loud speaker will actually decrease unless the voice coil weight is very materially increased. The then recent developments in vacuum tubes in the s helped to do the job of sophisticated control of frequencies and power regulation and amplification. Most ribbon tweeters emit sound in a dipole pattern.


Above and below the ends of the more or less rectangular ribbon, there is less audible output due to phase cancellation, but the precise amount of directivity depends on ribbon length. Loudspeaker driver loudspezker the type pictured are termed “dynamic” short for electrodynamic to distinguish them from earlier drivers i. Ernst Alexanderson – inventor of broadcast television tests the first television broadcast from the GE plant to his home.


The German firm Rulik still offers drivers with uncommon spiders made of wood. As a simple example of the mathematical physics involved, consider the following: Prototype moving-coil cone loudspeaker by Kellogg and Rice inwith electromagnet pulled back, showing voice coil attached to cone.

This shift results from the somewhat loudsepaker effective mass and radiation resistance of the vibrating system under this condition of installation.

The upper set of curves are electrofynamic an aluminum voice coil and the lower set of curves represent the same ‘cones driven by copper voice coils. All the efficiency data described above have been determined for a direct-radiator loud speaker mounted in an infinite baffle, as shown in Fig. On the other hand, the copper cap requires a wider voice-coil gap, with increased magnetic reluctance; this reduces available flux, requiring a larger magnet for equivalent performance.

The curves plotted in Fig. These reflected sound waves, when added to the direct sound, cause cancellation and addition at assorted frequencies e.

History and Types of Loudspeakers

We often give lip service to the fact that audio allows its practitioners to engage in both art and science. Horn loudspeakers are the oldest form of loudspeaker system.

European companies like Philips and Siemens had a leadership which could easily mobilize patents for creation of products. Design of Passive Crossovers.

It has poor bass response but the speakers look interesting as a rectangular flat screen. InEdgar Villchur developed the acoustic suspension principle of loudspeaker design in Cambridge, Massachusetts.


Electrodynamic loudspeaker – Frank, Massa

Unlike the newer dynamic moving coil design, a moving-iron speaker uses a stationary coil to vibrate a magnetized piece of metal called the iron, reed, or armature.

This means the sound reaching a listener’s ears consists not only of sound directly eelctrodynamic the speaker system, but also the same sound delayed by traveling to and from and being modified by one or more surfaces. This muffled sound was not good enough to compete with the horn which was well established in the market.

In order to gain maximum advantage from a given air gap, 7 it is generally desirable to make the width loudpseaker the ribbon employed as the conductor in the voice coil construction of Fig. The result is that the main cone delivers low frequencies and the whizzer cone contributes most of the higher frequencies. The load that a driver presents to an amplifier consists of a complex electrical impedance —a electroddynamic of elctrodynamic and both capacitive and inductive reactancewhich combines properties of the driver, its mechanical motion, the effects of crossover components if any are in the signal path between amplifier and driverand the effects of air loading on the driver as modified by the enclosure and its environment.

Loudspeaker – Wikipedia

The industry continued to rely on more advanced horns to create amplification. Third Edition, Revised and Expanded”.

The whizzer cone extends the high-frequency response of the driver and broadens its high frequency directivity, which would otherwise be greatly narrowed due to the outer diameter cone material failing to keep up with the central voice coil at higher frequencies.

Examples of typical measurements are: